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Speed & Smarts Issue 142

Answers to the RULES IQ TEST Questions - PART 2

October 2017 – Here is Part 2 of the answers to the RULES IQ TEST questions found in Speed & Smarts Issue 142. 
Link to Answers in Part 1

On a Downwind Leg  
1. T – The definition of “Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; Overlap” says, “These terms always apply to boats on the same tack.”  

2. F – The definition of “Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; Overlap” also says these terms “apply to boats on opposite tacks only when rule 18 applies between them or when both boats are sailing more than ninety degrees from the true wind.”  So if boats on opposite tacks are both sailing more than ninety degrees from the wind, they are considered to be overlapped even if neither is in the zone at a mark.

3. T – In rule 42.3 (Exceptions), section (c) says “the boat’s crew may pull in any sail in order to initiate surfing or planning, but each sail may be pulled in only once for each wave or gust of wind.” This rule says you may “pull in any sail” to pump it. It doesn’t limit how you can pull in the sail, so using the van is OK as long as you pull it in only once for each wave or gust of wind.

4. T – When you are pumping the spinnaker you can pull it in only once for each wave or gust of wind (see Answer to #3). If pull on both the sheet and guy at the same time, this counts as pulling in the sail once, so it is OK.

5. F – Rule 42.2 (Prohibited Actions) contains a list of prohibited kinetic actions that includes “(c) ooching: sudden forward body movement, stopped abruptly.” There is no exception to this rule, which means ooching is always prohibited. Of course, class rules can change this. In the USA, for example, college sailing permits ooching to promote surfing doiwnwind.

6. T – Rule 44.1 (Taking a Penalty) starts off like this: “A boat may take a Two-Turns Penalty when she may have broken one or more rules of Part 2 . . .” Rule 42 (Propulsion) is in Part 4 of the rulebook, not Part 2. Therefore, the Two-Turns Penalty is not available when a boat breaks a kinetics rule.

7. T – Rule 42.3 (Exceptions) includes the following provision: “If a batten is inverted, the boat’s crew may pump the sail until the batten is no longer inverted. This action is not permitted if it clearly propels the boat.”

8. T – Rule 50 (Setting and Sheeting Sails) contains the requirements for using spinnakers and spinnaker poles. It does not require boats to use spinnaker poles – it just says that if a spinnaker pole is in use “it shall be attached to the foremost mast.”

9. F – The definition of Obstruction describes the hypothetical test that must be used to determine whether an object is big enough to be an obstruction. It says an object is an obstruction if a boat sailing directly at it and one of her hull lengths from it must change course “substantially” (not ‘slightly’).

10. T – Rule 19 (Room to Pass an Obstruction) governs the actions of boats when they pass obstructions. In rule 19.2 (Giving Room at an Obstruction) it says, “A right-of-way boat may choose to pass an obstruction on either side.”

11. T – The definition of Proper Course says, “A course a boat would sail to finish as soon as possible . . .”

12. F – There is no longer any rule that prohibits a boat from sailing below her proper course. Of course, a windward boat must be sure to keep clear of a boat overlapped to leeward.

13. F – When two boats on the same tack converge, the windward boat must keep clear of the leeward boat (see Rule 11 – On the Same Tack, Overlapped). This applies even if the leeward boat came from behind and has a higher proper course than the windward boat. There is no rule that entitles a windward boat to sail her proper course – just a rule (Rule 17) that prohibits a leeward boat from sailing above her proper course when she came from behind.

14. F – Rule 44 (Penalties at the Time of an Incident) makes no exception for boats that are flying a spinnaker when they break a rule. Its second part (rule 44.2) starts off by saying, “After getting well clear of other boats as soon after the incident as possible . . .” So whenever a boat breaks a rule and intends to take a penalty she must get well clear of other boats as soon as possible and then promptly take a penalty. The only thing different about a boat with a spinnaker is that it may take her a little longer to begin her penalty because she will have to douse the spinnaker first.

15. T – The definition of Proper Course says it is the course a boat “would sail to finish as soon as possible in the absence of the other boats referred to in the rule using the term.” So, for example, if a boat got a leeward overlap from clear astern she cannot sail above her proper course. In that case her proper course is the course she would sail in the absence of the windward boat (because that boat is referred to in rule 17). However, the leeward boat’s proper course can include the actions or positions of boats other than the windward boat, if her fastest course to the finish is affected by them.

16. F – Rule 50 (Setting and Sheeting Sails) contains the limitations on sheeting sails. It says that a sail may not be sheeted “over or through an outrigger . . . An outrigger is any fitting or other device . . .” A human body part is not considered to be “a fitting or other device” so it is OK to hold a sheet outside the sheerline to trim a sail. Of course, there could be a class rule that prohibits this.

17. T – Again we turn to Rule 50 (Setting and Sheeting Sails). It does not require the use of a spinnaker pole but says, “When in use, it shall be attached to the foremost mast.”

18. F – In the old days, there was a rule requiring that the spinnaker clew be in close proximity to the end of the pole, but that was removed from the rulebook a long time ago.

19. T – Again we turn to Rule 50 (Setting and Sheeting Sails). Rule 50.3 (Use of Outriggers) says, “(c) A headsail may be sheeted or attached at its clew to a spinnaker pole or whisker pole, provided that a spinnaker is not set.”

20. F – The second part of rule 16 (Changing Course) says that when a port-tack boat is keeping clear by sailing to pass astern of a starboard-tack boat, “the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear.” This applies on a run just as it does on a beat. However, in this case the port-tack boat (P) was crossing in front of the starboard-tack boat (S), so rule 16.2 does not apply. This means S can change course to hunt P (as long as S gives P room to keep clear under rule 16.1).

21. T – The second part of rule 16 (Changing Course) says that when a port-tack boat is keeping clear by sailing to pass astern of a starboard-tack boat, “the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear.” So on a run if a port-tacker (P) is crossing close behind a starboard tacker (S), S cannot hunt P if this requires P to change course immediately to continue keeping clear.

22. F – This question would be true if it read, “the windward boat is protected as long as she keeps clear of the leeward boat.” When two boats are overlapped on the same tack, the windward boat (W) must keep clear of the leeward boat (W). That basic rule (rule 11) does not change because L got her overlap from clear astern and rule 17 (On the Same Tack; Proper Course) now limits how high L can sail.
_______________________

A-1. A – At position 1 the boats are on opposite tacks; Boat A is on port tack and Boat B is on starboard tack. Therefore, they are governed by rule 10 (Opposite Tacks), which says the port tacker (A) must keep clear of the starboard tacker (B).

A-2. T – Rule 14 (Avoiding Contact) says, “A boat shall avoid contact with another boat if reasonably possible.” Boat B could have easily avoided contact by heading up or bearing off to avoid Boat A. Since B did not avoid contact when it was reasonably possible to do so, she broke rule 14. (See also answer to A-3.)

A-3. T – Rule 14 says a boat shall avoid contact if possible. It also says, “a right-of-way boat . . . shall be exonerated if she breaks this rule and the contact does not cause damage or injury.” So even if B fails to avoid contact, she will be exonerated for breaking rule 14 unless she causes damage or injury.

B-1. T – At position 1, Boat L has the right of way as a leeward boat. When Boat W jibes she acquires the right of way as a starboard tacker (position 2). According to rule 15 (Acquiring Right of Way), “When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear.” In addition, after W jibes she changes her course slowly toward L. When she does this, rule 16 (Changing Course) requires her to give L room to keep clear.

B-2. F – When Boat W jibes she acquires the right of way as a starboard tacker (position 2). According to rule 15 (Acquiring Right of Way), “When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear.” This rule applies even if W does not change course when she jibes.

B-3. T – At position 1 Boat L has the right of way as a leeward boat. When L jibes, she maintains the right of way as a starboard tacker. Since the right of way does not change hands, rule 15 (Acquiring Right of Way) does not apply. In addition, since L did not change her course during this incident, rule 16 (Changing Course) does not apply. No rule requires L to give W room to keep clear. W is the keep-clear boat throughout this incident, so if the boats have contact she will be penalized.

C-1. T – When two boats are approaching an obstruction, rule 19.2 (Giving Room at an Obstruction) applies. It says, “A right-of-way boat may choose to pass an obstruction on either side.” In this case Boat L has the right of way as a leeward boat, so she can choose to pass the lighthouse on either side.”

C-2. T – The second part of rule 19.2 (Giving Room at an Obstruction) says, “When boats are overlapped, the outside boat shall give the inside boat room between her and the obstruction . . .” If the boats pass to windward of the lighthouse, W is the outside boat and L is the inside boat. Therefore, W must give room for L to pass between her (W) and the obstruction. This is a bit of a moot point, however, since W is a windward boat and must also keep clear of L.

C-3. T – W is a windward boat throughout this incident and therefore must keep clear of L. If the boats have contact, W will break rule 11 (On the Same Tack, Overlapped). However, W is entitled to room from L. According to rule 21 (Exoneration), “When a boat is sailing within the room . . . to which she is entitled, she shall be exonerated if, in an incident with a boat required to give her that room . . . she breaks a rule of Section A [which includes rule 11] . . .” So as long as W is not taking too much room she will be exonerated for breaking rule 11 (and L will be penalized for not providing enough room).

D-1. F – At position 1, the boats are on the same tack and Boat C is clear ahead of Boat D. Therefore, according to rule 12 (On the Same Tack, Not Overlapped), D must keep clear of C.

D-2. T – At Position 2, Boat D has established a leeward overlap on Boat C from clear astern within two hull lengths. Therefore, according to rule 17 (On the Same Tack; Proper Course), Boat D “shall not sail above her proper course while they remain on the same tack and overlapped within that distance . . .” Rule 17 describes one exception to this. The sentence above continues, “. . . unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat.”

D-3. F – There is no rules that prohibits a boat from sailing below her proper course. However, C is a windward boat in this case, so she must be sure to keep clear of the leeward boat (D).

D-4. T – A boat’s proper course is a subjective opinion based on her understanding of all the factors that affect how quickly she will make progress toward the finish line. Two boats can have very different opinions on how to finish quickly. According to World Sailing Case 14, “Two boats on the same leg sailing near one another may have very different proper courses.”

D-5. T – Because Boat D got her leeward overlap from astern, she is prohibited by rule 17 from sailing above her proper course. When D gets to the port-tack layline to the next mark, her proper course is to jibe and sail to that mark. If she clearly goes beyond that layline, she is considered to be sailing above her proper course and therefore she breaks rule 17.

D-6. T – At position 3, Boat C is a windward boat and must keep clear of D, the leeward boat. If the boats have contact, it means the windward boat did not keep clear and breaks rule 11 (On the Same Tack, Overlapped). In this case C will not be exonerated for breaking rule 11 because she was not compelled to break it (even though D was sailing above her proper course). So if there is contact at position 3, both boats would be penalized.

D-7. T – The limitation in rule 17 (On the Same Tack; Proper Course) applies only when a boat comes from behind and gets a leeward overlap “within two of her hull lengths.” If the leeward boat is farther away when she obtains her overlap, she is not prohibited from sailing above her proper course during that overlap.

At the Leeward Mark  
1. F – According to its definition, the ‘Zone’ is “The area around a mark within a distance of three hull lengths of the boat nearer it.” So the zone is a function of the length of the boat that’s closer to it, regardless of the relative sizes of the boats.

2. F – Rule 18.1 (When Rule 18 Applies) clearly says that rule 18 (Mark-Room) applies when “at least one of them is in the zone.” So, one or the other has to be in the zone but not both.

3. T – According to the definition of “Mark-room,” a boat entitled to mark-room gets “(b) room to round the mark as necessary to sail the course.” At a windward mark, a boat gets room to bear off to a downwind course. At a leeward mark, she gets enough room to head up to a closehauled course.

4. F – This statement is not necessarily true, so it has to be false. A boat’s ability to sail her proper course around a mark depends on whether she has the right of way or not. A give-way boat entitled to mark-room can take only enough room to sail a seamanlike course to the mark.

5. F – There are several reasons why a boat’s obligation to give mark-room may end before the other boat has left the mark astern. This happens when the boat entitled to mark-room 1) passes head to wind; 2) goes outside the zone, or 3) has been given the mark-room she needs (see rule 18.2d).

6. F – When a boat entitled to mark-room also has the right of way, she can always sail at least as wide as her proper course, and she is not limited to a seamanlike rounding. A ‘seamanlike’ rounding is the minimum amount of space guaranteed to any boat that is entitled to mark-room, but it’s a moot concept if and when that boat has the right of way.

7. F – Rule 31 (Touching a Mark) says that “a boat shall not touch . . . a mark that begins, bounds or ends the leg of the course on which she is sailing . . . “ According to the rulebook’s ‘Introduction,’ a boat is “A sailboat and the crew on board.” So if any part of a sailboat, including its equipment, touches a mark, that boat has broken rule 31.

8. T – The boat coming from behind must give the other boat mark-room, which includes room to sail to the mark, leave it on the required side and round it as necessary to sail the course. As long as the boat behind provides the required room, she can round the mark however she wants. If the boat entitled to mark-room sails wide enough, the boat behind can often cut inside without interfering.

9. F – A boat entitled to mark-room does not necessarily get room to tack. Mark-room includes room to tack only when that boat is “overlapped inside and to windward of the boat required to give mark-room . . . (see the definition of Mark-Room).

10. F – Rule 18.4 (Gybing) says that when an “inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark than needed to sail that course.” So if two boats enter the zone overlapped on the same tack and the leeward inside boat must gybe to sail her proper course around the mark, she is required to do so, even if she has ‘luffing rights’ (i.e. she did not get her leeward overlap from clear astern).

11. T – Rule 21 (Exoneration) describes when a boat may be exonerated for breaking certain rules. It says, “When a boat is sailing within . . . the mark-room to which she is entitled, she shall be exonerated if . . . (a) she breaks a rule of Section A, rule 15 or rule 16 . . .” So an inside boat that’s rounding a mark can change her course as needed to do so, and if she breaks rule 16 (Changing Course) she will be exonerated.

12. F – Rule 21 (Exoneration) mentions a number of rules that a boat entitled to mark-room can break and be exonerated, but it does not include rule 14 (Avoiding Contact). Boats are never exonerated for breaking rule 14 so they must be careful to avoid contact.

13. F – This statement is almost true. However, rule 21 (Exoneration) says that a boat can be exonerated for breaking rule 31 (Touching a Mark) only if she was ‘compelled’ to break it. If a boat was not compelled to touch a mark she will be penalized, even if she was otherwise sailing within the mark-room to which she was entitled.

14. T – When two boats overlapped on opposite jibes approach a gate mark (which they must round to port) and the starboard tacker is on the inside (and must jibe to round the mark), she must not sail farther from the mark than needed to sail her proper course. This is stated by rule 18.4 (Gybing). However, the last sentence of 18.4 reads, “Rule 18.4 does not apply at a gate mark.” So if this situation happens at a gate, there is no requirement for the inside starboard tacker to jibe to sail her proper course.

15. F – Rule 28 (Sailing the Course) describes the requirements for how boats are required to sail around the marks in a race. Section 28.2 says, “A string representing a boat’s track . . . shall . . . pass between the marks of a gate from the direction of the previous mark.” If a boat leaves both gate marks on the same side her string will not comply with rule 28.2.

16. F – Rule 32 (Shortening or Abandoning After the Start) describes the rules that apply when a race committee shortens or abandons a race. Section 32.2 says, “If the race committee signals a shortened course . . . the finishing line shall be . . . (c) at a gate, between the gate marks.” So when the course is shortened to a gate, boats always finish between the two gate marks – the nearby RC boat is not a mark or end of the line.

17. F – By definition, a mark is, “An object the sailing instructions require a boat to leave on a specified side . . .” ‘Rounding’ marks are definitely marks, but so are any other objects you are required to leave on a certain side (e.g. government navigational aids if so designated).

18. T – Rule 33 (Changing the Next Leg of the Course) describes the procedures and rules that apply when the RC moves a mark. The rule says the RC must “signal all boats before they begin the next leg,” but “The next mark need not be in position at that time.”

19. F – Rule 42 (Propulsion) lists “sculling” as a prohibited action. However, it makes an exception for sculling in a particular situation: “When a boat is above a close-hauled course and either stationary or moving slowly, she may scull to turn to a close-hauled course.” In most cases a boat cannot scull to turn around the mark, but if she is sailing above closehauled and going slowly, she can scull but only until she reaches a closehauled course.

20. F – Rule 44.2 (One-Turn and Two-Turns Penalties) does not prohibit taking a penalty turn inside the zone at a mark. It just says that a boat must get “well clear of other boats as soon after the incident as possible . . .” If a boat inside the zone is well clear of other boats, she is permitted to make a penalty turn there.

21. F – Rule 47 (Limitations on Equipment and Crew) says, “A person leaving the boat by accident . . . shall be back onboard before the boat continues in the race.” Sailing around a mark is considered ‘continuing in the race,’ so a boat is not allowed to do this unless she has all crew members on board. 

A-1. T – Even though Boats B and H are on opposite tacks, they are considered to be overlapped because both are sailing downwind and also because at least one of the boats (H) is in the zone, so rule 18 (Mark-Room) applies between them. When the first boat (H) entered the zone, the boats were overlapped. Therefore, according to rule 18.2 (Giving Mark-Room), the outside boat (B) must give mark-room to the inside boat (H).

A-2. F – Neither Boat B nor Boat F are in the zone; therefore rule 18 (Mark-Room) does not yet apply between them. We won’t know which boat will be entitled to mark-room until we see their relationship when the first of them enters the zone.

A-3. T – Even though Boat G is behind Boat E, these boats are considered to be overlapped because a boat between (F) them overlaps both. Since the boats were overlapped when the first of them (E) entered the zone, the outside boat (E) must give mark-room to the inside boat (F).

A-4. F – Boat C is in the zone at the leeward mark, so rule 18 (Mark-Room) applies between C and D (and also between C and each other boat). Since C and D were not overlapped when C entered the zone, the boat that was clear astern (D) must give mark-room to the boat clear ahead (C).

A-5. T – Boat H is in the zone, so rule 18 (Mark-Room) applies between her and Boat A. Even though these boats are on opposite tacks and A is sailing above 90° to the true wind, they are considered to be overlapped because rule 18 applies between them and neither boat is clear astern of the other. Therefore the outside boat (A) must give mark-room to the inside boat (H).  

A-6. F – Boats A and G are on opposite tacks, so they are considered to be overlapped only if a) rule 18 applies between them, or b) they are both sailing more than 90° to the true wind. In this case neither boat is in the zone yet, so rule 18 does not apply between them. In addition, A is sailing above 90° to the true wind. Therefore, they are not considered to be overlapped. But they will be overlapped as soon as either one enters the zone and rule 18 begins to apply.

B-1. T – At position 1, Boat A is in the zone so rule 18 (Mark-Room) applies between the boats. Because A and B were overlapped when the first of them entered the zone, the boat on the outside (A) must give mark-room to the one on the inside (B) – see part (b) of rule 18.2 (Giving Mark-Room).

B-2. F – Boat B is entitled to mark-room. According to the definition of Mark-Room, this means B gets enough room for a ‘seamanlike’ rounding; in other words she can sail to the mark, leave the mark on its required side, and round the mark as necessary to sail the course. Nothing in the definition says B can go wide enough to sail her proper course. B is a windward, keep-clear boat so if she takes more room than is permitted in the definition she will be penalized. If B had the right of way here she could sail her proper course around the mark.

B-3. T – Boats A and B are overlapped with B to windward. According to rule 11 (On the Same Tack, Overlapped), the windward boat (B) must keep clear of the leeward boat (A). Since the boats had contact, B did not keep clear of A; therefore, B broke rule 11 (but she may be exonerated for doing so).

B-4. T – Rule 21 (Exoneration) says that when a boat is sailing within the mark-room to which she is entitled she will be exonerated if she breaks rule 11 (On the Same Tack, Overlapped) or any of several other rules. In this case, B was making a seamanlike rounding within her mark-room; therefore, she will be exonerated for breaking rule 11 (and A will be penalized for not giving B enough room as required by rule 18.2b).

C-1. T – At position 1, Boat C is in the zone so rule 18 (Mark-Room) applies between the boats. Because C and D were overlapped when the first of them entered the zone, the boat on the outside (C) must give mark-room to the one on the inside (D) – see part (b) of rule 18.2 (Giving Mark-Room).

C-2. T – In this situation the inside boat (D) has the right of way so she is not limited to taking only enough room for a seamanlike rounding. She could sail as wide as she wants (and C has to keep clear), except for rule 18.4 (Gybing). Rule 18.4 says that when an inside overlapped right-of-way boat (D in this case) must jibe at the mark to sail her proper course, before she jibes she can sail no wider than needed to sail her proper course. So D is permitted to sail her proper course around this mark, but she can’t go wider than that.

C-3. F – At position 2, both boats are in the zone and rule 18 (Mark-Room) applies. Since Boat D is an inside overlapped right-of-way boat and must jibe at the mark to sail her proper course, rule 18.4 (Gybing) says she may not sail any farther from the mark than needed to sail her proper course. Therefore, she is not allowed to luff at position 2 (unless luffing is her proper course for some reason).

C-4. F – The last sentence of rule 18.4 (Gybing) says, “Rule 18.4 does not apply at a gate mark.” So this rule does not place a limit on how wide Boat D can sail around a leeward gate mark.

Near the Finish Line  

1. T – The definition of ‘Finish’ says a boat finishes when she ‘crosses the finishing line from the course side . . . However, she has not finished if after crossing the finish line she (a) takes a penalty under rule 44.2 . . .’ If a boat takes a penalty after crossing the finish line, she does not finish the race until she crosses the finish line from the course side after her penalty.

2. F – The definition of ‘Finish’ says nothing about sailing the course properly. If a boat failed to round a mark of the course and she then crosses the finish line she is considered to have finished. However, she broke rule 28 (Sailing the Course) because she did not sail the course properly, and she will be penalized if there was a valid protest against her.

3. F – This is definitely false. After finishing a race, a boat could be penalized for breaking a rule in that race if there is a valid protest against her. In addition, there are many rules that a boat can break when she is not racing. If she finishes a race and then throws some trash overboard, for example, she could be penalized for breaking rule 55 (Trash Disposal), which applies “at all times while afloat.”;

4. F – If at least one boat sails the course and finishes within the time limit, “the race committee shall not abandon the race without considering the consequences for all boats in the race or series.” This is stated in rule 32 (Shortening or Abandoning After the Start). So, the RC can abandon a race after boats have finished, but they must consider how this would affect all other boats in the race.

5. F – According to the definition of ‘Racing,’ a boat is still racing until she “finishes and clears the finishing line and marks . . .” While a boat is racing she must comply with rule 42 (Propulsion), which prohibits sculling and paddling, among other kinetic actions. So even after a boat crosses the finish line, she must comply with rule 42 until she has cleared the line and marks.

6. T – Rule 44 (Penalties at the Time of an Incident) does not place any restriction on where a boat can take her penalty (except that she must be well clear of other boats). However, rule 44 says that if a boat takes a penalty at or near the finishing line “she shall sail completely to the course side of the line before finishing.”

7. T – Rule 31 (Touching a Mark) applies while a boat is racing. So if a boat touches a finish mark before she “clears the finishing line and marks” she must take a penalty. If a boat takes a penalty after crossing the finishing line, she is not considered to have finished (see the definition of Finish), so after taking her penalty turn she must finish by crossing the finish line again from the course side.  

8. F – The penalties described in rule 44 (Penalties at the Time of an Incident) are available only when a boat breaks a rule while she is racing. If a boat breaks a rule while she is not racing, her only option is to retire from the race sailed nearest in time to the incident (see rule 64.1 – Penalties and Exoneration).

9. F – Sound signals from the race committee at the finish line are a courtesy not required by the rules. So the presence or absence of a sound signal when a boat crosses the finish line generally don’t have any meaning except that boat crossed the line at that time.

10. T – According to the definition of ‘Finish,’ a boat finishes when “any part of her hull, or crew or equipment in normal position crosses the finish line from the course side.” If the spinnaker trimmer eases the sheets so the spinnaker flies abnormally far in front of the boat, that sail is not in its ‘normal position’ so it would not count for crossing the finish line. The committee would finish that boat when the first part of her hull or equipment in normal position crosses the line; this is typically the bow of the boat.  

11. F – The answer would be True if we were talking only about an upwind finish because rule 18 (Mark-Room) does not apply “between boats on opposite tacks on a beat to windward.” However, when boats are approaching a downwind finish, rule 18 applies at the ends of the line just as it does at a leeward mark, regardless of whether the boats are on the same or opposite tacks.

12. F – The answer would be True if we were talking only about boats on opposite tacks because rule 18 does not apply “between boats on opposite tacks on a beat to windward.” However, when boats are on the same tack and approaching a mark at the end of an upwind fish line, rule 18 applies just as it does at a windward mark. The phrase “surrounded by navigable water” applies only at a starting line and does not make any difference at the finish.

13. C,D – Rule 62 (Redress) list four situations in which a boat may be entitled to redress. One is when the race committee makes an error, and another is when she is damaged by a boat that was required to keep clear. However, she cannot get redress when another boat fouls her but does not cause damage or injury. And even though she can get redress for helping any person or vessel in danger, she is not entitled to redress when she gives help to her own crew (see rule 62.1c).

14. T – The rulebook’s Appendix A (Scoring) explains how to score a race. Rule A4.2 says a boat that did not finish “shall be scored points for the finishing place one more than the number of boats entered in the series.” Since there are 10 boats entered in this regatta, a DNF gets 11 points.

15. T – Rule A4.2 says a boat that is disqualified “shall be scored points for the finishing place one more than the number of boats entered in the series.” Since there are 10 boats entered in this regatta, a DSQ gets 11 points.

16. T – Boats A and B are tied on points. To break the tie we have to look at Appendix A rule A8 (Series Ties). Rule A8.1 says “If there is a series-score tie between two or more boats, each boat’s race scores shall be listed in order of best to worst, and at the first point where there is a difference the tie shall be broken in favor of the boat with the best score.” If we do this with Boats A and B we get: 

         Boat A   1, 1, 2, 2, 3, (4)

         Boat B   1, 1, 2, 2, 3, (5)

These boats have exactly the same race scores until we get to their throwout scores. However, rule A8.1 says, “No excluded scores shall be used.” So the boats are still tied and we have to go on to A8.2, which says “If a tie remains between two or more boats, they shall be ranked in order of their scores in the last race.” Since A got a 2 in the last race and B got a 1, B wins the tie-breaker and the regatta overall. Note that A8.2 uses each boat’s score in the last race even if this was her excluded score.

17. F – Boats C and D are tied on their series score, so we go to the first tie-breaker which is to list each boat’s scores from best to worst.

        Boat C   1, 3, 4, 4, 4, (6)

        Boat D   1, 3, 3, 4, 5, (7)

Because Boat C has a 1, 3, 4 and Boat D has a 1, 3, 3, Boat D wins the tie-breaker and third place overall. In this case it doesn’t matter that Boat C had a better throwout or that C beat D in the last race.

18. F – Rule 32 (Shortening or Abandoning After the Start) describes the procedure the race committee must follow when shortening the course. The last sentence in the rule says, “The shortened course shall be signaled before the first boat crosses the finish line.” In other words, the RC doesn’t have to signal a shortened course until just before the first boat gets to the new finish line.

19. T – Rule 35 (Time Limit and Scores) makes this point clearly. It says, “If no boat finishes within the time limit, the race committee shall abandon the race.”

20. F – Rule 69 (misconduct) describes the procedure for handling situations when a person may have acted in an inappropriate way. Rule 69.1(c) says, “An allegation of a breach of rule 69 . . . shall not be grounds for a protest . . .” So a boat or competitor cannot protest a person for misconduct. However, they could provide ‘information’ to the protest committee that alleges misconduct, and it would then be up to the committee to decide if they were going to proceed with a rule 69 hearing.

A-1. X – At position 2, Boat X has completed her tack by getting to a closehauled course. Boats X and Y are then on the same tack and overlapped. Therefore, according to rule 11 (On the Same Tack; Overlapped), the windward boat (Y) must keep clear of the leeward boat (X). This means X has the right of way.

A-2. F – Although Boat X is overlapped inside of Boat Y within the zone at the pin end mark, rule 18.2 (Giving Mark-Room) does not apply between them. That’s because X tacked inside the zone and Y has been on starboard tack since entering the zone. Therefore, rule 18.3 (Tacking in the Zone) applies between them. The last sentence of rule 18.3 says, “When this rule applies between boats, rule 18.2 does not apply between them.”

A-3. Yes – Because Boat X tacked inside the zone and Boat Y has been on starboard tack since entering the zone, rule 18.3 (Tacking in the Zone) applies between them. That rule says, among other things, that X shall not cause Y to sail above close-hauled to avoid contact. Since Y had to luff above closehauled to keep clear of X, X broke rule 18.3.

A-4. No – Rule 18.3 (Tacking in the Zone) does not apply at the starboard end of the finish line because it applies only “in the zone of a mark to be left to port.” So as long as X does not break rule 13 (While Tacking) or rule 16 (Changing Course) when she luffs up to shoot the line, neither boat broke a rule.

B-1. T – The committee boat is an obstruction because it is “An object that a boat could not pass without changing course substantially, if she were sailing directly towards it and one of her hull lengths from it.” (See the definition of ‘Obstruction.’) It is an obstruction even if the boats are not headed at it and even if certain rules about obstructions do not apply at that time.

B-2. F – Rule 20 (Room to Tack at an Obstruction) does not apply at a starting mark surrounded by navigable water when the boats are approaching the line to start (see the Preamble to Section C), but it could apply at a finishing mark that is an obstruction.

B-3. T – The committee boat is an obstruction and also a mark at one end of the finish line. When an obstruction is also a mark, a boat that considers hailing for room to tack must consider the last sentence of rule 20.1 (Hailing), which says “. . . she shall not hail if the obstruction is a mark and a boat that is fetching it would be required to change course as a result of the hail.” In this case, if L hails for room to tack but W is fetching the mark (i.e. she can pass to windward of the mark, on its required side, without changing tack), L will break rule 20.1.

B-4. F – The second part of rule 20.2 (Responding) says, “A hailed boat shall respond even if the hail breaks rule 20.1.” So when L hails for room to tack in this case, the hailed boat (W) must respond by tacking as soon as possible or by immediately replying, “You tack.” If she doesn’t, she breaks rule 20.2(b), even if L’s hail also broke a rule.

C-1. F – Boat S and Boat P are sailing toward a mark at one end of the finish line, which they are required to leave to starboard. When the first of them enters the zone, the boats are overlapped with P on the inside. According to rule 18.2 (Giving Mark-Room), “If boats are overlapped when the first of them reaches the zone, the outside boat at that moment shall thereafter give the inside boat mark-room.” Therefore, S must give P room to pass on the required side of the mark.

C-2. T – P is entitled to mark-room, but she does not have the right of way. Therefore, she is ‘guaranteed’ only enough room to sail to the mark in a seamanlike way. If she takes more room than that, she will not be exonerated if she fails to keep clear of the right-of-way boat (S).

C-3. F – The definition of Finish says, “A boat finishes when any part of her hull, or crew or equipment in normal position, crosses the finishing line from the course side.” So Boat S finishes when the leading edge of her spinnaker crosses the line. However, if the spinnaker is not in its normal position (e.g. the trimmer eased it way out to finish sooner), the RC will use the boat’s hull (or other piece of equipment in normal position) to determine when the boat finishes.

D-1. Yes – According to the definition of racing, a boat is racing “until she finishes and clears the finishing line and marks . . .” So in this situation Boat A is still racing because she has not yet cleared the finish line and marks. Rule 31 (Touching a Mark) says, “While racing, a boat shall not touch . . . a mark . . .” So, because Boat A touched a mark while she is still racing, she must take a penalty.

D-2. Yes – Boat B has complied with the definition of Finish because she “crosses the finish line from the course side.” She does not need to sail all the way across the finish line because the first part of rule 28 (Sailing the Course) says, “After finishing, she need not cross the finishing line completely.”

(Link to rest of expanded answers in Part 3)