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Speed & Smarts Issue 142

Answers to the RULES IQ TEST Questions - PART 1

September 2017 – Here are the answers to the RULES IQ TEST questions found in Speed & Smarts Issue 142. I will be adding more expanded answers here (and in 'Part 2') during the next few weeks. I suggest you have a rulebook handy when you go through these.  David

Near the Starting Line
1. F  – Fundamental Rule 4 (Decision to Race) makes it very clear that, “The responsibility for a boat’s decision to participate in a race or to continue racing is hers alone.”

2. T  – The preamble to the rulebook’s Part 2 (When Boats Meet) says, “The rules of Part 2 apply between boats that are sailing in or near the racing area and intend to race, are racing or have been racing . . .” So, as soon as you reach the racing area, the racing rules apply between you and any other boats that will be racing.

3. T  – This statement is not exactly correct. Yes, a boat starts when, after the starting signal, any part of her hull, crew or equipment crosses the starting line in the direction of the first mark. But the definition ‘Start’ also says the boat must be entirely on the pre-start side of the starting line at or after her starting signal.

4. F  – This is not even close to being True. Many racing rules, sailing instructions and class rules can be broken when a boat is not racing. For example, if a non-racing boat interferes with a racing boat she breaks rule 24 (Interfering with Another Boat). If a boat throws trash overboard between races she breaks rule 55 (Trash Disposal), and so on.

5. F  – According to the definition ‘Proper Course,’ “A boat has no proper course before her starting signal.” In other words, as soon as the starting signal is made, all racing boats have proper courses. This includes the time between that signal and when each boat actually starts the race (when they cross the line).

6. F  – See the definition of ‘Racing’: “A boat is racing from her preparatory signal . . .”

7. F  – When a boat not yet racing meets a boat that is racing, they are bound by the Racing Rules of Sailing. These rules say which boat must keep clear, and this doesn’t depend on whether a boat is racing or not. For example, if a non-racing boat on starboard tack meets a racing boat on port tack, the non-racing boat has right of way. Of course, if she interferes with the racing boat that’s a separate issue – in that case she will break rule 24 (Interfering with Another Boat).

8. F  – Nope. Part (c) of rule 90.2 (Sailing Instructions) specifies clear procedures for making changes in the sailing instructions. Oral changes may be given on the water only, so nothing said at the competitors’ meeting can change what is printed in the SIs or posted in writing on the official notice board.

9. F  – Before 2013, the answer would have been True. But now the definition ‘Mark’ says, “An . . . object attached accidentally to a mark is not part of it.” This means objects (e.g. a motorboat) that are not attached to the committee boat (or any other mark) by accident are considered a part of it. Therefore, if you touch that motorboat you’d have to make a penalty turn.

10. T  – See rule 27.2: “No later than the preparatory signal, the race committee may move a starting mark.” If they move a starting mark after the prep signal, this could potentially be grounds for redress.

11. T  – Rule 31 (Touching a Mark) says “While racing, a boat shall not touch a starting mark before starting . . .” Since a boat is not racing before her preparatory signal, if you touch a starting mark then you don’t have to take a penalty.

12. T  – Rule 44.1 (Taking a Penalty) does not prohibit a boat from taking a penalty before she starts. In fact, rule 44.2 (One-Turn and Two-Turns Penalties) says a boat must get “well clear of other boats as soon after the incident as possible” and then she must “promptly” make the required number of turns. So if you break a rule 3 minutes before the start you cannot wait to take it after the start even if you wanted to.

13. F  – If the RC makes an improper OCS signal, a boat might get redress if this action made her place in the race significantly worse through no fault of her own. However, if a boat knows she was OCS, she is required to return and restart whether or not the RC made the proper signal. In that case she would not be entitled to redress.

14. F  – When rule 30.1 (I Flag Rule) is in effect, a boat that is OCS during the last minute before her starting signal “shall sail across an extension to the pre-start side before starting.” There is no requirement to do this after the starting signal.

15. F  – Rule 22 (Starting Errors . . .) is the rule that says a boat sailing back to the line to re-start must keep clear of other boats. However, rule 22 applies “after her starting signal,” so a boat that is sailing back to the line before the starting signal does not lose her rights with respect to other boats.

16. F  – Don’t look for an X flag or a sound signal when boats start under rule 30.3 (U Flag Rule). The last sentence of rule 29.1 (Individual Recall) says, “If rule 30.3 [U Flag Rule] or rule 30.4 [Black Flag Rule] applies this rule does not.” So the RC will just write down the OCS numbers and let you know later.

17. T  – This statement comes right from rule 29.2 (General Recall), which says, “The warning signal for a new start for the recalled class shall be made one minute after the First Substitute is removed . . .”

18. F  – Most rule breaches during a general recall are forgiven for the re-start of that race. However, there are a few breaches that aren’t forgiven. These include penalties under rule 30.4 (Black Flag Rule), rule 30.2 (Z Flag Penalty), rule 69 (Misconduct) and rule 14 (Avoiding Contact) if she caused injury or serious damage. See rule 36 (Races Restarted or Resailed).

19. T  – When boats are approaching a starting mark to start, it’s clear from the preamble to Section C (At Marks and Obstructions) that rule 18 (Mark-Room) does not apply between them. That’s why inside boats are not entitled to mark-room and are considered to be ‘barging.’ Before boats are approaching the line to start, the marks at the end of the starting line do not have a required side, so rule 18 does not apply then either. See rule 18.1 (When Rule 18 Applies) and rule 28.2 (Sailing the Course).

20. T  – The committee boat is big enough to be an obstruction, so if two overlapped boats are passing it on the same side rule 19.2b (Giving Room at an Obstruction) says the outside boat must give room to the inside boat. Once the boats are approaching the line to start, rule 19 no longer applies (see the preamble to Section C), so the outside boat no longer has to give room.

21. T  – Sculling is specifically prohibited by rule 42 (Propulsion). See section (d) of rule 42.2 (Prohibited Actions). However, there is one exception to this listed in rule 42.3 (Exceptions). Rule 42.3(d) says, “When a boat is above a closehauled course and either stationary or moving slowly, she may scull to turn to a closehauled course.”

22. F  – According to section 1 of rule 42 (Propulsion), “a boat shall compete by using only the wind and water to increase, maintain or decrease her speed.” Foot dragging not allowed!

23. T  – Turning the rudder hard back and forth to increase drag and reduce speed would probably be prohibited by rule 42 (Propulsion), but there is a specific exception listed in rule 42.3 (f): “A boat may reduce speed by repeatedly moving her helm.”
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A-1. X  – At position 1 Boat X is clear ahead of Boat Y. Rule 12 (On the Same Tack, Not Overlapped) says, “:When boats are on the same tack and not overlapped, a boat clear astern shall keep clear of a boat clear ahead.” Therefore, Y must keep clear of X.

A-2. T  – At position 2, Boat Y has established a leeward overlap from clear astern within two hull lengths of Boat X. Therefore, according to rule 17 (On the Same Tack; Proper Course), Y may not sail above her proper course as long as the boats remain on the same tack and overlapped within two lengths. Of course, boats do not have a proper course before the starting signal, so until that point Y can sail as high as she wants without breaking rule 17.

A-3. F  – There is no requirement for Y to hail before changing course. Even if Y does hail, this would not change her obligation under rule 16 to give X room to keep clear.

A-4. T  – At position 3, Boat X is the windward boat and Boat Y is the leeward boat. According to rule 11 (On the Same Tack, Overlapped), the windward boat (X) must keep clear of the leeward boat (Y). If the boats have contact it means X did not keep clear, so therefore she broke rule 11. However, X could be exonerated for breaking rule 11 if Boat Y broke rule 16 (Changing Course) and thereby forced X to break 11.

A-5. F  – If there is contact at position 3, the leeward boat (Y) is definitely at risk of getting a penalty. Y was changing course just before contact, so she was required to give Boat X room to keep clear. Since there was contact, it is very possible that Y did not give X room to keep clear. That’s why it would be smart for Y to curtail her luff before there is contact.

B-1. T  – The committee boat is an obstruction to Boats D and E. If these boats are not approaching the line to start, rule 19 (Room to Pass an Obstruction) applies between them. Rule 19.2(a) says, “A right-of-way boat may choose to pass an obstruction on either side.” Since D has the right of way (as a leeward boat), she can choose to pass the RC boat on either side.

B-2. T  – If these boats are not approaching the line to start, rule 19 (Room to Pass an Obstruction) applies between them at the committee boat. Rule 19.2(b) says, “When boats are overlapped, the outside boat shall give the inside boat room between her and the obstruction . . .” D, as the outside boat, must therefore give room to E, the inside boat.

B-3. F – The committee boat is big enough to be an obstruction for Boats D and E, so it is always considered an obstruction. However, when the boats are approaching the line to start, rule 19 (Room to Pass an Obstruction) does not apply. So even though the boats are about to pass an obstruction, the outside boat does not have to give room to the inside boat.

B-4 – With 30 seconds to go, these boats are approaching the line to start. Therefore, according to the preamble to Section C, rule 19 (Room to Pass an Obstruction) does not apply between Boats D and E, which means D does not have to provide room for Boat E.

C-1. T  – Because these boats are approaching the line to start, rule 18 (Mark-Room) and rule 19 (Room to Pass an Obstruction) do not apply between them (see Section C Preamble). Therefore, the leeward outside boat (L) does not have to give room or mark-room to the windward inside boat (W).

C-2. F – Because L got her leeward overlap from clear astern, she cannot sail above her proper course. There is no proper course before the starting signal, but after that signal is made L must fall off to her proper course. However, she is still not required to give W room or mark-room at the committee boat. 

C-3. T – If L did not get her leeward overlap from astern (e.g. she tacked into a leeward overlap or W came from behind), then L is not prohibited from sailing above her proper course. This means she can sit head to wind after the starting signal. At that point the boats are still approaching the line to start, so rules 18 and 19 don’t apply, and L still does not have to give room or mark-room to W.  

D-1. T  – According to the definition of Obstruction, “. . . a boat racing is not an obstruction to other boats unless they are required to keep clear of her . . .” In this case, Boat B must keep clear of A under rule 11 (On the Same Tack, Overlapped), and Boat C must keep clear of A under rule 12 (On the Same Tack, Not Overlapped). Therefore, A is an obstruction to B and C.

D-2. T  – When C comes from behind and gets an overlap close to leeward of B she is subject to rule 15 (Acquiring Right of Way). That rules says C “. . . shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear . . .”

D-3. T  – When C gets a leeward overlap on B we have two boats passing an obstruction (Boat A). According to rule 19.2(a), “When boats are overlapped, the outside boat shall give the inside boat room between her and the obstruction . . .” Therefore B, the outside boat, must give room for C, the inside boat, to pass between A and B. However, the full text of 19.2(b) says, “When boats are overlapped, the outside boat shall give the inside boat room between her and the obstruction, unless she has been unable to do so from the time the overlap began.” So B must give C room, but if she is unable to do so from the time when C gets a leeward overlap, then B is not required to give room.

E-1. T  – Before the starting signal there is no proper course, so Boat E is permitted to luff head to wind even if she got her leeward overlap from clear astern.

E-2. F – A boat that gets a leeward overlap from clear astern (E) is not permitted to sail above her proper course. After the starting signal, her proper course is usually to sail closehauled. However, if luffing up around the pin end of the line is the fastest way for E to finish, then that is her proper course and she is entitled to sail it even if she came from astern.

On a Windward Leg 
1. F – There is no rule that says S cannot bear off when P has borne off to pass behind her, but rule 16 (Changing Course) makes this risky. The first part of the rule (16.1) says that whenever S changes her course she must give P room to keep clear. The second part (16.2) says that when P is ducking, S cannot change course if “as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear.” This ‘anti-hunting’ rule makes it risky for S to bear off toward P.

2. F – The ‘anti-hunting’ rule (16.2) applies only when a port-tack boat is sailing to pass astern of a starboard-tack boat. It does not apply when the port-tacker is trying to cross in front of S. In that case, S can change course as long as she gives P room to keep clear (rule 16.1).

3. F – The rulebook used to place a specific onus on a boat that tacked close in front of another boat, but that is no longer the case. However, it is risky to make a close lee-bow tack, and if that situation goes to a protest the boat that tacked is much more likely to be penalized than the boat that was sailing straight.

4. T – The definition of ‘Keep Clear’ says a boat keeps clear of a right-of-way boat if the right-of-way boat “can sail her course with no need to take avoiding action . . .” However, that is not the only requirement for keeping clear. The second part of the definition says that if the boats are overlapped, the give-way boat is not keeping clear unless “the right-of-way boat can also change course in both directions without immediately making contact.” So a windward boat may not be keeping clear even when the leeward boat can sail her course without having contact.   

5. F – A boat is always on the tack, port or starboard, corresponding to her windward side. A boat’s windward side is the side that is toward the wind. Imagine a boat on port tack that begins a tack to starboard. Just after she passes head to wind, the wind is then coming over her starboard side. That means starboard is her windward side and she is on starboard tack. Of course, she does not gain the rights of a starboard tacker until she gets to a closehauled course (see rule 13 – While Tacking).

6. F – When two boats are tacking at the same time, right of way has nothing to do with who passed head to wind first. According to rule 13 (While tacking), when two boats are subject to that rule at the same time, “the one on the other’s port side or the one astern shall keep clear.”  

7. F – Rule 15 (Acquiring Right of Way) says, “When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear . . .” If that was the end of the rule, then this answer would be True. But rule 15 goes on to say “. . . unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s actions.” So, if a boat tacks onto port right in front of a starboard tacker, S does not have to give P room to keep clear.  

8. T – The definition of “Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; Overlap” says, “These terms always apply to boats on the same tack.”  

9. T – The very first rule in the rulebook (Rule 1 – Safety) says, “A boat or competitor shall give all possible help to any person or danger.” This means that when you are sailing under the Racing Rules of Sailing, you are required to give ‘all possible help’ to any person or vessel you see in danger. The term ‘vessel’ means “Any boat or ship” (see Terminology in the rulebook’s Introduction), so this means you must help any boat in danger, not just one that is racing.  

10. T –  Rule 20 (Room to Tack at an Obstruction) describes what happens when a boat hails for room to tack. The second part of that rule (20.2 Responding) says, “(b) A hailed boat shall respond even if the hail breaks rule 20.1.” So even if a hailed boat thinks a hail is made too early, she must reply by tacking or hailing ‘You tack,’ and then she can protest. 

11. F – When a boat hails for room to tack at an obstruction, the hailed boat has a choice – she must either tack as soon as possible or immediately reply “You tack.”  This is described in section (c) of rule 20.2 (Responding). 

12. T – The first part of rule 20.1 (Hailing) is very clear about this. It says a boat shall not hail unless “she is approaching an obstruction and will soon need to make a substantial course change to avoid it safely.” If a boat needs to make only a slight course change to avoid an obstruction, she is not permitted to hail for room to tack under rule 20.

13. F – Rule 20.2 (Responding) contains no requirement that the hailed boat sees the obstruction or agrees with the hail. It says, “(b) A hailed boat shall respond even if the hail breaks rule 20.1.”  So even if she can’t see any obstruction, the hailed boat still needs to respond to the hail in accordance with the rule.

14. F – Rule 16 (Changing Course) says that when a right-of-way boat changes course she must give the other boat room to keep clear. I t does not make any exception for why the right-of-way boat might be changing course. So, for example, if a starboard tacker gets a lift right when a port tacker is crossing, S can head up with the lift only if she also gives P room to keep clear.  

15. T – When two boats on port tack approach a starboard tacker, S is an obstruction to them because they must both keep clear of S. So if the port tackers are overlapped as they pass S, rule 19 (Room to Pass an Obstruction) says, “When boats are overlapped, the outside boat shall give the inside boat room between her and the obstruction . . .” Therefore, if PL bears off to go behind S she must provide room for PW to do the same. 

16. F – No! The first part of rule 43 (Competitor Clothing and Equipment) makes this very clear. It says, “Competitors shall not wear or carry clothing or equipment for the purpose of increasing their weight.”

17. T – Rule 42 (Propulsion) prohibits the use of ‘kinetics’ to propel your boat. One of the exceptions in rule 42 is the ability to pump your sails when planning or surfing is possible. However, that rule (42.3c) makes it clear that this exception does not apply on a beat to windward. Of course, class rules may change this (and some do).  

18. T – Roll tacking is another exception to rule 41 (Propulsion). Sailors are allowed to roll-tack their boats as long as “just after the tack or gybe is completed, the boat’s speed is not greater than it would have been in the absence of the tack or gybe” (see rule 42.3b).  

19. T – Part (e) of rule 42.3 (Exceptions) says, “If a batten is inverted, the boat’s crew may pump the sail until the batten is no longer inverted. This action is not permitted if it clearly propels the boat.”  

20. F – The rule that governs the movement of sails (and other equipment is rule 51 (Movable Ballast). It says, “All movable ballast, including sails that are not set, shall be properly stowed. Water, dead weight or ballast shall not be moved for the purpose of changing trim or stability.” In other words, you can’t move your unused sails to the windward rail to help reduce heel.  

21. T – The answer to this question is in rule 49 (Crew Position; Lifelines). Rule 49.2 says, “On boats equipped with upper and lower lifelines, a competitor sitting on the deck facing outboard with his waist inside the lower lifelines may have the upper part of his body outside the upper lifelines.”  

22. F – A boat is not allowed to interfere with boats on a different leg of the course unless she is sailing a proper course for the leg she is on. This is explained in rule 24 (Interfering With Another Boat), which says, “24.2 If reasonable possible, a boat shall not interfere with a boat that is . . . sailing on another leg . . . However, after the starting signal this rule does not apply when the boat is sailing her proper course.”
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A-1. Starboard – Just after P passes head to wind, the wind is then coming over her starboard side (at position 2). That means starboard is her windward side and she is therefore on starboard tack. A boat is always on the tack, port or starboard, corresponding to her windward side. Of course, P does not gain the rights of a starboard tacker until she gets to a close-hauled course at position 3 (see rule 13 – While Tacking).

A-2. F – According to the rulebook, the completion of a tack has nothing to do with whether a boat’s sails are filled or not. The first sentence of rule 13 (While Tacking) says, “After a boat passes head to wind, she shall keep clear of other boats until she is on a close-hauled course.” In other words, when she tacks she regains her rights at the moment she gets to a close-hauled course, irrespective of whether her sails are filled.

A-3. T – There is no rule that requires a boat to hail ‘Starboard’ when she converges with a port tacker. It is usually courteous for her to make this hail and sometimes it is a good idea tactically – but it is not required.

A-4. T – Once P gets to position 3 (her close-hauled course on starboard tack), she gains the right of way as a boat that is clear ahead or to leeward. At that point, S is clear astern or to windward and must therefore keep clear of P. If S has to change her course before position 3, P broke rule 13 (While Tacking) because she did not keep clear while she was tacking. If S does not have to change her course until after position 3, neither boat broke a rule.

A-5. F – A hail of ‘Hold your course’ (or any other hail) in this situation does not mean anything as far as the rulebook is concerned, so it does not restrict the course that S can sail. Of course, if S needs to change course to avoid hitting P she should certainly do so. And whenever S changes her course she must give P room to keep clear (Rule 16 – Changing Course).

B-1. R – At position 1, the boats are on the same tack and not overlapped. According to rule 12 (On the Same Tack, Not Overlapped), the boat that is clear astern (B) must keep clear of the boat clear ahead (R). This means R has the right of way.

B-2. R – At position 2, R has turned so she is heading directly into the wind. The definition ‘Leeward and Windward’ says that when a boat is head to wind, her leeward side “is the side that . . . was away from the wind.” So R’s leeward side is port and her windward side is starboard, which means she is still on starboard tack. R and B are therefore on the same tack and overlapped. According to rule 11 (On the Same Tack, Overlapped), the boat that is to windward (B) must keep clear of the boat to leeward (R). This means R has the right of way.

B-3. F – At position 3, R is on port tack and B is still on starboard, so the right of way has switched from R to B. Rule 15 (Acquiring Right of Way) says, “When a boat acquires right of way she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear . . .” However, note the final words in that rule “. . . unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s actions.” In this case, B acquired the right of way because R tacked. Therefore, the protection of rule 15 does not apply to R, so R is not entitled to room to keep clear.

C-1. T – The definition of Obstructions says, “. . . a boat racing is not an obstruction to other boats unless they are required to keep clear of her . . .” In this case both W and L are on port tack, and they are required to keep clear of S on starboard. Therefore, S is an obstruction to them.

C-2. F – The order of the hails from L and W does not play any part in how this situation is handled. If L chooses to pass behind the obstruction S, she must give room to W who is overlapped to windward of L (and she must do this even if W did not hail for room to duck). However, if L chooses to avoid S by tacking and she hails for room to tack, W must respond to that hail (even if W would rather pass astern of S).

C-3. F – Rule 20.1 (Hailing) describes when a boat is permitted to hail for room to tack at an obstruction. However, even if a boat makes a hail that is improper (i.e. it does not comply with rule 201.), the hailed boat must still reply to that hail. Part (b) of rule 20.2 (Responding) makes that clear by saying, “A hailed boat shall respond even if the hail breaks rule 20.1.”

C-4. T – Rule 20.1 (Hailing) says a boat shall not hail for room to tack unless “she is approaching an obstruction and will soon need to make a substantial course change to avoid it.” In this case L is approaching an obstruction (S), but L does not have to make a substantial course change to avoid S. Therefore, when she hailed for room to tack she broke rule 20.1(a).

D-1. T – Rule 16.1 (Changing Course) says, “When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat room to keep clear.”

D-2. F – If the boats don’t have contact, S probably complied with rule 16.1 by giving P room to keep clear. However, when P is sailing to pass astern of S there is another obligation on S. Rule 16.2 says that S must not change course “if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear.” So if S bore off toward P and P needed to change course immediately to keep clear of S, then S broke rule 16.2 whether or not the boats had contact.

D-3. F – There is a match racing ‘call’ that says a starboard tacker cannot sail below 90° to the wind to hunt a port tacker, but this does not apply in fleet racing. In a fleet race, what matters is whether S changed her course as the boats converged and whether P had to change her course immediately to continue keeping clear.

D-4. T – Rule 10 (Opposite Tacks) says that a boat on port tack must keep clear of a boat on starboard tack. If there is a collision between P and S, then P did not keep clear of S and therefore broke rule 10. However, P would be exonerated for breaking rule 10 if she was forced to break it when S broke rule 16.

At the Windward Mark  
1. F – In match racing and team racing the zone has a radius of two hull lengths, but in fleet racing the zone is three hull lengths!

2. T – According to the definition of ‘Zone,’ “A boat is in the zone when any part of her hull is in the zone.” So bowsprits and spinnakers do not count for being in the zone.

3. T – According to the definition of ‘Clear Astern and Clear Ahead;Overlap,’ two boats on opposite tacks are overlapped “only when rule 18 applies between them or when both boats are sailing more than ninety degrees from the true wind.” When two boats on opposite tacks are approaching a windward mark, they are not sailing below 90°. Could rule 18 apply between them? No, because the first part of rule 18.1 (When Rule 18 Applies) says it does not apply “between boats on opposite tacks on a beat to windward.” So two boats sailing on opposite tacks on a beat cannot be overlapped.

4. F – At a windward mark, mark-room includes room to tack only when the boat entitled to mark-room is “overlapped inside and to windward of the boat required to give mark-room . . .” (see definition of Mark-Room). If the boat entitled to mark-room is clear ahead when she gets to the mark, mark-room does not include room to tack for her.

5. T – According to the definition of Mark-Room, a boat entitled to mark-room gets “room to round the mark as necessary to sail the course.” So if jibing at the windward mark is ‘necessary’ to sail the next leg, a boat entitled to mark-room can jibe there. However, the word ‘necessary’ means jibing is required to sail the next leg; in other words, a boat must be able to fetch the leeward mark after jibing.

6. T – Many sailors don’t realize that rule 18.4 (Gybing) applies at the windward mark in addition to the leeward mark. That rule says, “When an inside overlapped right of way boat must gybe at a mark to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark than needed to sail that course.” When two overlapped boats on starboard approach the windward mark on starboard tack (and they are rounding it to port), the leeward boat is ‘an inside overlapped right-of-way boat.’ Therefore, if her proper course is to jibe at the mark she must do so. This applies even if she has luffing rights on the windward boat.

7. T – The first part of rule 18.1 (When Rule 18 Applies) says it does not apply “(a) between boats on opposite tacks on a beat to windward.” So rule 18 does not apply between two boats sailing upwind on opposite tacks.

8. F – According to the definition of Fetching, “A boat is fetching a mark when she is in a position to pass to windward of it and leave it on the required side without changing tack.” This definition says nothing about a closehauled course. As long as a boat get around a mark with passing head to wind (she can luff up to head to wind), she is considered to be fetching it.

9. T – According to the definition of Mark, “An anchor line . . . is not part of it.” Therefore, a boat does not break any rule if she touches the anchor line of a mark.

10. F – Rule 44.1 (Taking a Penalty) describes a particular situation when a boat fouls another boat and touches a mark at the same time. It says, “(a) when a boat may have broken a rule of Part 2 and rule 31 in the same incident she need not take the penalty for breaking rule 31.” So, she needs to make just two turns, not three.

11. F – Rule 31 (Touching a Mark) says, “While racing, a boat shall not touch a . . . mark.” According to World Sailing Case 77, “A boat touches a mark within the meaning of rule 31 when any part of her hull, crew or equipment comes in contact with the mark.”

12. T – When a boat touches a mark, she must take a One-Turn Penalty including one tack and one jibe. There is no restriction on where this penalty can be taken, except that the boat must get “well clear of other boats as soon after the incident as possible.” If she takes her turn around the mark while keeping well clear of other boats, that is fine (and it complies with rule 28, the ‘string rule’).

13. T – Rule 44.1 (Taking a Penalty) says the sailing instructions may specify the use of the Scoring Penalty, “in which case the specified penalty shall replace the One-Turn and the Two-Turns Penalty.” So if the Scoring Penalty is in effect and you touch a mark, you cannot exonerate yourself with a One-Turn Penalty.

14. T – Rule 33 (Changing the Next Leg of the Course) allows the race committee to change the bearing or length of a leg that begins at any rounding mark, which includes the windward mark.

15. T – Rule 32 describes the procedure for shortening the course. Rule 32.2(a) says that when the race committee shortens the course at a rounding mark (e.g. the windward mark), the finishing line will be “between the mark and a staff displaying flag S.”

16. F – When a boat (P) tacks from port to starboard in the zone, she must be careful about breaking rule 18.3 (Tacking in the Zone) with regard to a boat that has been on starboard tack (S) since she entered the zone. That rule says the tacking boat cannot cause S to sail above closehauled to avoid her. But not every course change by S means that P broke rule 18.3. If S was overstanding the mark and headed up to closehauled to avoid P, P did not break this rule.

17. T – According to rule 18.3 (Tacking in the Zone), this rule applies only when a boat tacked from port to starboard inside the zone and then meets “a boat that has been on starboard tack since entering the zone . . .” If both boats entered the zone on port tack, this rule does not apply between them.

18. T – Rule 18.3 (Tacking in the Zone) begins, “If a boat in the zone of a mark to be left to port . . .” Therefore, it does not apply between boats that are required to leave the mark to starboard.

19. T – In rule 42 (Propulsion), sculling is specifically prohibited by part (d) of rule 42.2 (Prohibited Actions). However, rule 42.3 (Exceptions) says that sculling is permitted to turn to a close-hauled course “when a boat is above a close-hauled course and either stationary or moving slowly . . .” This usually happens at the start but could also apply in light air at a windward mark.

20. T – According to rule 18.2 (Giving Mark-Room), “If boats are overlapped when the first of them reaches the zone, the outside boat at that moment shall thereafter give the inside boat mark-room.” In this case the leeward boat (PL) is the outside boat and the windward boat (PW) is inside, so PL must give PW mark-room.

21. T – Assuming that tacking is necessary to round the mark and that PW still has in inside windward overlap when she needs to tack, she is entitled to room to tack as part of the mark-room that PL must give her (see the definition of Mark-Room).

22. F – If PL will have to make a substantial course change to avoid an approaching starboard tacker, she is permitted to hail for room to tack by rule 20 (Hailing for Room to Tack at an Obstruction). Once she does that, the last section of rule 20.2 (Responding) says, “From the time a boat hails until she has tacked and avoided a hailed boat, rule 18.2 does not apply between them.” So even though PW was initially entitled to mark-room, once PL hails for room to tack under rule 20 she no longer has to give PW mark-room.
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A-1. Yes – Boat A is overstanding the windward mark. She can pass to windward of the mark and on the required side of the mark without passing head to wind (i.e. without changing tack). Therefore she is fetching the mark.

A-2. Yes – Boat B is on the starboard-tack layline to the windward mark. She can pass to windward of the mark and on the required side of the mark without passing head to wind (i.e. without changing tack). Therefore she is fetching the mark.

A-3. Maybe – Boat C is below the starboard-tack layline to the windward mark. If she will be able to luff up and pass to windward of the mark on its required side without passing head to wind, she is fetching the mark.

A-4. No – Boat D is approaching the windward mark on port tack. She cannot pass to windward of the mark on its required side without passing head to wind (i.e. tacking); therefore she is not fetching the mark.

A-5. No – Boat E is approaching the windward mark on port tack. She cannot pass to windward of the mark on its required side without passing head to wind (i.e. tacking); therefore she is not fetching the mark.

B-1. F – According to third part of rule 18.1 (When Rule 18 Applies), rule 18 does not apply, “(c) between a boat approaching a mark and one leaving it.” Since A is still approaching the windward mark and B is leaving it, rule 18 does not apply between these boats. Therefore A does not have to give mark-room to B (but, of course, she must keep clear of B).

B-2. T – Boat C is in the zone, so rule 18 (Mark-Room) applies between her and Boat A. Because C was clear ahead of A when she (C) entered the zone, A must give C mark-room (according to rule 18.2b).

B-3. T – Boat C is in the zone, so rule 18 (Mark-Room) applies between her and Boat F. Because C was overlapped on the inside when the first boat of this pair entered the zone, rule 18.2b says the outside boat (A) must give mark-room to C.

B-4. F – According to first part of rule 18.1 (When Rule 18 Applies), rule 18 does not apply, “(a) between boats on opposite tacks on a beat to windward.” Since C is sailing upwind on port tack and G is sailing upwind on starboard tack, rule 18 does not apply between these boats. Therefore G does not have to give mark-room to C (and, of course, C must keep clear of G).

B-5. T – Boat D is in the zone, so rule 18 (Mark-Room) applies between her and Boat G. Because D was clear ahead of G when she (D) entered the zone, G must give D mark-room (according to rule 18.2b).

B-6. F – The first sentence of rule 18.1 (When Rule 18 Applies) says, “Rule 18 applies between boats when they are required to leave a mark on the same side and at least one of them is in the zone.” In this case, neither E nor G are in the zone, so rule 18 does not yet apply to them.

C-1. F – Rule 18.3 (Tacking in the Zone) only applies between 1) a boat that tacks from port to starboard inside the zone, and 2) a boat that has been on starboard tack since entering the zone. Since neither P nor S were on starboard tack when they entered the zone, rule 18.3 does not apply between them.

C-2. C – Neither boat has to give the other boat mark-room. Boat P had an inside overlap when she entered the zone, so S had to give her mark-room under rule 18.2(b). However, when P passed head to wind, rule 18.2(b) ceased to apply and S no longer owed mark-room to P. If the boats were overlapped here, then rule 18.2(a) would apply. That rule says, “When boats are overlapped the outside boat shall give the inside boat mark-room . . .” But since P and S are not overlapped, 18.2(a) does not apply and neither owes mark-room.

D-1. T – Because Boat S got her leeward overlap from clear astern within two hull lengths of Boat P, she (S) is not permitted to sail above her proper course during this overlap. However, S’s proper course is likely to luff up so she can get around the mark.

D-2. F – Boat P tacked inside the zone and S was on starboard tack since she entered the zone; therefore Rule 18.3 (Tacking in the Zone) applied between them. Rule 18.3 says that if S becomes overlapped inside of P, P must give her mark-room. Rule 18.2 (Giving Mark-Room) does not apply between these boats when 18.3 does, so it doesn’t matter if S gets a late inside overlap here – when she does, P must provide mark-room.

D-3. T – Once S gets a leeward inside overlap she is entitled to mark-room from P. As long as S is sailing within the mark-room to which she is entitled, she will be exonerated (by rule 21, Exoneration) if she breaks rule 16 (Changing Course) or any of the other rules listed in rule 21. In other words, S can turn to round the mark and she won’t be penalized if she changes course without giving P room to keep clear. P must anticipate this and make sure she provides S plenty of room. 

(See the rest of the expanded answers in Part 2)